Origin: External occipital protuberance, medial superior nuchal line, ligamentum nuchae, and spinous process of seventh cervical vertebrae.
Insertion: Lateral one third of clavicle and acromion process of scapula.
Action: Laterally rotates scapula, and elevates the acromial end of the clavicle and scapula with the other trapezius portions and an accessory muscle for respiration.
Position: Sitting, elevate the shoulder, and bring the head towards the elevated shoulder.
Rotation: Turn head to point the ear toward the front of the shoulder
Stabilise: Same side shoulder.
Monitor: Apply pressure to depress the shoulder, and against the head to straighten it up.
Nerve Supply: Spinal portion of cranial nerve XI, the accessory and ventral ramus of the spinal nerves - C2, C3 & C4
Sympathetic: L1, L2, L3
Parasympathetic: Vagus X, S2
Anterior: Bilateral anterolateral from hip to knee
Posterior: Bilateral region between L1, L4 & PSIS.
Neuro-Vascular Reflex: Bilateral parietal eminences-posterior aspect.
Yuan point: LI4
Nutrition: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Vit. D, iron.